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      Drug Repurposing: Then, Now, and in the Future

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            Abstract

            Contrary to the definition of a drug, drug repurposing usually involves the redevelopment of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for a substantially different medical use; only rarely is this done with an off-the-shelf drug approved for a different disease. There is a qualitative difference between API redevelopment and additional approvals for an existing drug; to qualify as repurposing, the additional therapeutic indication must not be closely related to the original one. Using the mechanism for which the drug is approved and marketed to treat a different disease context is called on-target repurposing, and while the new use may seem obvious in retrospect, it requires ingenuity to connect the dots of evidence leading to it. Off-target repurposing is even more innovative: it relies on a newly discovered mechanism, or one that was known but only considered in terms of the drug's side effects. While clever pharmacological thinking and occasional serendipity have long driven repurposing, algorithmic approaches are now making their mark, and more recently, artificial intelligence applications are taking drug repurposing to unprecedented levels.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Journal
            DrugRxiv
            REPO4EU
            15 February 2024
            Affiliations
            [1 ] H.M. Pharma Consultancy, Vienna, Austria;
            Author notes
            Author information
            https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1491-6250
            Article
            10.58647/DRUGARXIV.PR000005.v1
            e75ec551-659d-4d3f-937c-cf048b440ae7

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

            History
            : 15 February 2024
            Categories

            Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
            Medicine,Quantitative & Systems biology,Molecular medicine,Bioinformatics & Computational biology,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine,Life sciences
            network pharmacology,high-throughput screening assays,machine learning,data mining,molecular docking simulation,artificial intelligence,drug repurposing,electronic health records,intellectual property

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